As we have already observed, kinematics describes motion without regard to its causes. By contrast, dynamics analyses the causes of the motion and describes motion in a cause-effect framework. The fundamental laws of dynamics are Newton's laws of motion.


  • the fundamental quantities of kinematics: position, displacement, velocity and acceleration;
  • vectors v scalars;
  • vector operations (addition, subtraction);
  • the fundamentals of differential calculus.

Learning objectives

By the end of this course, students will be able to

  • interpret motion in a cause–effect framework;
  • predict the motion of an object when the forces acting on it are known;
  • employ the concept of force in analysing the interactions between objects;
  • distinguish between static friction and kinetic friction and decide which to use to describe a given situation.

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